C-Arm Trainer

The Simulated C-Arm and Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Models developed by CREST teach needle access techniques with a simulated C-Arm.  It is an effective "Fluoro-less" training tool.  The system is low-cost and produces no radiation: hurdles that make training difficult in the O.R. 



Establishing percutaneous renal access under fluoroscopic imaging guidance is one of the core skills in percutaneous nephrolithotomy and percutaneous nephrostomy.

The FluoroLess C-Arm Trainer developed by CREST was designed to train parallax skills associated with renal access and is now used in the AUA hands-on perc courses. It has continued to undergo a series of iterations which have improved the usability, acceptability, and tissue/anatomic fidelity of the trainer. 


Simulates movement of the internal collecting system while keeping the skin still.

Recent upgrades include an actuating “breathing” system and flank skin.

A push button operated by the user or assistant shows the ability of breath holding during access.


The clear silicone Kidney-Ureter model is coated with lubricant, resting in an artificial transparent tissue layer representing flank skin.